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Отчёты о применении

  • White Paper. Different sieving methods for a variety of applications

    The determination and knowledge of the particle size distribution is an essential part of the quality control process for industrial products. Easy handling, low investment cost and high accuracy make sieve analysis one of the most frequently used procedures for measuring the particle size. This white paper gives an overview of the different sieving techniques and describes the necessary steps to ensure reliable results.
  • White Paper: Cryogenic Preparation of Sample Materials

    A solid sample material should always be sufficiently prepared by size reduction and homogenization before it is subjected to chemical or physical analysis. Care should be taken that the analysis sample fully represents the original material and that the sample preparation process is carried out reproducibly. Most sample materials can be reduced to the required analytical fineness at room temperature by choosing a mill with a suitable size reduction principle (impact, pressure, friction, shearing, cutting).
  • White Paper: How to minimize standard deviations by correct sample preparation

    Modern analytical methods increase precision and push detection limits to make even the smallest traces of sample components detectable. Despite this development sample preparation, which is carried out prior to the actual analysis, is frequently neglected. Errors caused by lacking accuracy in sample preparation have a much bigger impact than errors made during analysis.
  • White Paper: Important Aspects of Sample Preparation of Biological Materials

    Biological samples exist in all shapes and sizes: hard bones, tough and fibrous plants, tough and viscous sputum, soft muscles, tumor or liver tissue. Not to mention the millions of cells such as yeast, bacteria or algae, which have to be disrupted for applications such as DNA or RNA isolation or protein extraction. Retsch offers a range of mills and grinders for easy and reproducible pulverization of solid sample materials some of which are also suitable for cell disruption and homogenization of biological sample materials.
  • White Paper: Reproducible Sample Preparation for Reliable Food Analysis

    Food occurs in a great variety of consistencies and is often inhomogeneous. Food testing labs require representative samples to produce meaningful and reproducible analysis results. Therefore, food samples must be homogenized and pulverized to the required analytical fineness, ideally with as little time and effort as possible.
  • White Paper: Ultrafine Grinding with Laboratory Ball Mills

    How are nano particles produced? The “Bottom-Up” method synthesizes particles from atoms or molecules. The “Top-Down” method involves reducing the size of larger particles to nanoscale, for example with laboratory mills. Nano particles are produced by colloidal grinding which involves dispersion of the particles in liquid to neutralize the surface charges. Factors such as energy input and size reduction principle make ball mills the best choice for the production of nanoparticles.
  • Метод сравнения: Криогенное измельчение образцов

    A solid sample material should always be sufficiently prepared by size reduction and homogenization before it is subjected to chemical or physical analysis. Care should be taken that the analysis sample fully represents the original material and that the sample preparation process is carried out reproducibly. Only then are meaningful results guaranteed. Most sample materials can be reduced to the required analytical fineness at room temperature by choosing a mill with a suitable size reduction principle (impact, pressure, friction, shearing, cutting).

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Мельницы и дробилки(86)

  • What hair reveals

    Вибрационная мельница RETSCH MM 400 является настоящим лабораторным ?многоборцем?. С частотой вибрации 30 Гц, эта высокопроизводительная шаровая мельница измельчает и гомогенизирует порошки и суспензии за несколько секунд, и достигает результатов до нижнего микронного диапазона раз- меров частиц. У MM 400 два держателя, это позволяет производить единовременную пробоподготовку до 20 проб.
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  • D?D?D?DμD2D°?? D?DμD???D?D???D° GRINDOMIX GM 300 - D??€D???Dμ????D?D?D?D°D???D?D?Dμ ?€Dμ??DμD?D?Dμ D′D??? D?D??‰DμD2D?D1 D?D°D±D??€D°??D

  • D?DμD????‰D°?? D?DμD???D?D???D° SM 300 - ????D?D2Dμ?€??DμD?????D2D?D2D°D?D?Dμ D·D°?€DμDoD?D?DμD?D′D?D2D°D2??DμD3D? ??DμD±?? D??€D?D

  • D?Dμ?…D°D?D???Dμ??DoD°?? ??????D?DoD° 200 - D’D???D??€D?D?D·D2D?D′D?D?D°?? D??€D?D±D?D?D?D′D3D???D?D2DoD° ??D? ??????D?DoD?D1 D? D

  • D?D?D°D?Dμ??D°?€D?D°?? ??D°?€D?D2D°?? D?DμD???D?D???D° D??€DμD′DμD???D?D? D±???????€D? - D2????D???D°D1??D°?? ??D?D?DoD??????

  • Вибрационная дисковая мельница RS 200 - Аналитическая тонкость за секунд

  • Идеальная гомогенизация с мельницей Grindomix GM 300

  • Измельчение в размере XL: Большой объем пробы, большая производительность

    Режущие мельницы, отличающиеся универсальностью и эффективностью измельчения самых разных материалов, удовлетворяют любым требованиям области применения. Новая мельница SM 400 XL дополняет модельный ряд режущих мельниц RETSCH серии SM и позволяет измельчать материалы с большим входным размером кусков. Эта мельница имеет объем размольной камеры 7.45 л, а максимально допустимая крупность загружаемых кусков пробы составляет 170x220 мм, поэтому большие объемы пробы можно измельчать максимально быстро и эффективно. Предварительное измельчение пробы вручную, как правило, не требуется. В этом отчете представлены различные примеры применения SM 400 XL.
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  • Использование CryoMill для образцов с летучими компонентами

  • Контроль качества цемента - от предварительного и аналитического измельчения образцов до элементного анализа

    Для производства высококачественного цемента необходимо знать минералогический и химический состав используемых сырьевых материалов, а также промежуточной и готовой продукции. На каждой стадии производства выполняется отбор проб для соответствующей обработки и анализа, что позволяет вести непрерывный контроль качества.
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  • Криогенное разруше- ние дрожжевых клеток T estimonial по Протоколу Роута

  • Метод сравнения: Криогенное измельчение образцов

    A solid sample material should always be sufficiently prepared by size reduction and homogenization before it is subjected to chemical or physical analysis. Care should be taken that the analysis sample fully represents the original material and that the sample preparation process is carried out reproducibly. Only then are meaningful results guaranteed. Most sample materials can be reduced to the required analytical fineness at room temperature by choosing a mill with a suitable size reduction principle (impact, pressure, friction, shearing, cutting).
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  • Определение подлинности кашемира

  • Переработка стекла - ценный ресурс

  • Превосходная скорость, конечная тонкость и воспроизводимость

    The overall procedure of X-ray fluorescence analysis may be divided into three different stages: sampling, sample preparation and the actual spectrometric analysis itself. Of these three, it is usually the mechanical sample preparation that takes up most of the time and will therefore be discussed in this application report.
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  • Превращая лом в сырьё

  • Пробоподготовка для анализа пестицидов методом QuEChERS

    Tак называемый метод QuEChERS (аббр.от англ. ?быстрый, легкий, дешевый, эффек- тивный, прочный и безопасный?) был разработан Микельанджело Анастассиадес (отдел исследова- ний в области Химии и Ветеринарии CVUA, Штут- гарт, Германия) чтобы сделать подготовку для ана- лиза остатков пестицидов более эффективной. В общем, он состоит из трех шагов: гомогенизация - экстракция - анализ. Ряд тестов доказал, что результаты анализа, достигнутые методом QuEChERS, можно легко сравнить с более распро- страненными методами, как DFG S19.
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  • Режущая мельница SM 300 - Мощное измельчение сложных материалов

  • Ситовой анализ и измельчение металлических порошков

    Возможность повторного использования сырьевых материалов играет важную роль в металлургии. Компания RETSCH предлагает широкий спектр оборудования, предназначенного для рассева порошков и измельчения металлических компонентов, что позволяет в дальнейшем повторно использовать переработанный материал в производственном процессе.
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  • Сталелитейная промышленность: Гомогенизация шлака для оптимизации процесса

    Множество проб сырья и шлака требуется проанализировать на минералогический и химический состав для оптимизации производства стали на тех шагах где эти материалы вовлекаются в цепочку производства. На каждом этапе производства производится отбор пробы, её обработка и анализ для обеспечения полного контроля качества "без пробелов".
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  • Технологии RETSCH для производства керамических деталей

    Дробилки и мельницы активно применяются при изготовлении керамических изделий не только на первых этапах измельчения и перемешивания сырья, но и в дальнейшем при изготовлении промежуточных материалов илиспекания. Свойства промежуточных материалов тщательно изучаются на предмет минералогического и химического состава с целью дальнейшей оптимизации этапов производства. На каждой стадии производства выполняется отбор проб для соответствующей гомогенизации и анализа, что позволяет вести непрерывный контроль качества.
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  • Ультрацентробежная мельница ZM 200 - Быстрое и бережное измельчение

  • Щековая дробилка BB 200 - Лошадиная сила для грубого и предварительного изм

  • As fine as necessary

    A variety of methods can be used to analyze solid materials. What they all have in common is the necessity to use a representative, homogeneous analysis sample which needs to have a particular fineness, depending on the analytical method used. The size reduction and homogenization of solids is usually carried out with laboratory crushers and grinders.
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  • Biomass - sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials

    Sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials with laboratory mills. Thanks to the increasing usage of biomass as a source of energy, the analysis of these materials in the context of R&D and quality control gains importance, too. Due to the complex properties of plant materials, adequate sample preparation can be rather a challenge.
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  • Cannabis – from illegal drug to medical treatment

    The concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenoids are the main points of interest in the quality control of cannabis-related products. The pesticide contents is also of interest. To ensure reliable analytical results, the sample preparation process for cannabis needs to be adjustable to the considerable complexity of the various matrices. There are some challenges to overcome: samples may be sticky, fibrous or fatty and the sample amount may vary greatly.
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  • Cell disruption of parasites with Bead Beating

    Giardia and Cryptosporidia are parasites which occur in water and can cause diarrhoea in humans. They are persistent forms found in water and are resistant to environmental influences and disinfectants. Detection and quantitative determination of the parasites are typically performed in accordance with ISO 15553 ?Water Quality – Isolation and Enumeration of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from water“. A German microbiological laboratory has now tested a mechanical approach by using RETSCH’s Mixer Mill MM 400 for bead beating.
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  • Cereal bars - are they really healthy?

    Food manufacturers often promote their products as ?light“ or, such as in the case of cereal bars, ?healthy“. If that is actually true, can only be verified by analyzing the nutritional values, a procedure which forms an important part of food quality control. The cereal bars consist of a heterogeneous mixture of ingredients (nuts, raisins, oat flakes etc.), therefore the thorough homogenization of the sample is required to obtain meaningful analysis results.
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  • Chemical analyses for classification of artificial mineral wool

    We often come across fibrous materials in everyday life. The fibers may be subdivided into natural ones like cellulose, hemp or asbestos and artificial ones like polyester or viscose [1] (figure 1). The artificial mineral fibers comprise crystalline fibers such as carbon fibers and silicon carbide but also amorphous fibers like glass wool or rock wool. Glass-like fibers are commonly used as insulating wool or as an additive in construction materials to enhance stability, toughness and durability.
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  • Cold, sticky and tough - Cryogenic grinding improves breaking properties

    Sticky, tough or elastic samples are generally difficult to pulverize. Cheese, for example, can be ground with a knife mill but only to a final fineness of about 1 – 2 mm which is not small enough for most analysis techniques. Sweets, on the other hand, often consist of various components like elastic foamy sugar with a sticky, liquid filling. Cryogenic treatment, however, improves the breaking properties of cheese or candy so that even elastic materials can be successfully pulverized.
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  • Complete homogenization of complex samples -Muesli to streaky bacon -

    The diversity of foodstuffs with their often very different product properties represents a real challenge for food testing laboratories. RETSCH’s GRINDOMIX knife mills are the ideal tools to meet the complex requirements of the sample preparation of food. The model GM 200 has proven itself for the homogenization of small sample volumes of up to 700 ml. For larger volumes RETSCH offers the GM 300 model with a grinding chamber volume of 5,000 ml.
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  • Confectionery - sample preparation for HPLC analysis

    Like all foodstuff, confectionery is subjected to strict quality controls. Typically, chromatographic methods like High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are used to analyze food samples. Most analytical methods only require a few milligram or gram of sample; the previous size reduction/homogenization process ensures that the small analysis sample is representative of the entire laboratory sample, thus allowing for reproducible results. Moreover, homogenized samples show a much better extraction behavior.
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  • CryoMill - Cryogenic grinding was never more convenient or efficient

    Some sample materials have properties which make size reduction at ambient temperature impossible. If, for example, very elastic materials need to be ground or volatile components have to be preserved for further analysis, it is essential to carry out cryogenic grinding. The use of liquid nitrogen helps to embrittle the sample, thus improving its breaking properties, and preventing volatile substances from escaping due to the frictional heat produced by the grinding process.
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  • Cryogenic disruption of yeast cells according to the Rout Protocol

    The Michael Rout Lab at the Rockefeller University in New York, NY, initially contacted RETSCH Inc. in 2006 to discuss the possibility of using the Planetary Ball Mill to cryogenically grind yeast cell pellets. The aim of their experiment was to explore the construct of Nuclear Pore Complexes located on the cell walls of yeast cells. The decision to use a Planetary Ball Mill for this application was mainly based on the fact that it produces very small particle sizes which were considered an important prerequisite for more in-depth analysis of the yeast cells.
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  • Cutting Power XL: Larger Sample Volumes, More Throughput

    Due to the wide range of applications, cutting mills need to be highly flexible and powerful to fulfill all requirements. RETSCH‘s new SM 400 XL has been added to the cutting mill range to cover applications with bulky sample pieces. Thus, large sample volumes are fed and fully homogenized in a very short time. Manual pre-cutting is usually not required. This report provides a variety of application examples where the XL Cutting Mill achieves very good results.
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  • Detection of Mycotoxins in Nuts

    Just like micro-organisms which generate antibiotics, molds which generate mycotoxins have spread all over the world. Aflatoxins are the most toxic form of mycotoxins. Some types of food show an increased risk of aflatoxin release due to fungal infestation: dried fruit, spices, nuts (peanuts, hazelnuts, pistachios) and grain (wheat, corn).
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  • Down to the bone

    The material used in implants varies from autogeneic through allogeneic bones to replacement materials such as hydroxylapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Bovine bones and corals are used in conjunction with synthetically produced foamed materials to form a basis for the regeneration of bone substance. Various RETSCH mills are suitable for the preliminary and fine grinding of human bones as well as bioceramic materials.
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  • Effective size reduction by cutting - What's in the fish?

    The homogenization of fish is a challenge; scales, skin and bones are fairly resistant to size reduction so that the sample still contains some larger pieces after grinding in most mills. A high fat content of the fish makes the process even more difficult, as fatty particles stick together to form large lumps which block the mill and keep the sample inhomogeneous.
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  • Emax - The Revolution in Ultrafine Grinding

    The Emax is an entirely new type of ball mill which was specifically designed by RETSCH for high energy milling. The impressive speed of 2,000 min-1, so far unrivaled in a ball mill, in combination with the special grinding jar design generates a vast amount of size reduction energy. Thanks to the new liquid cooling system, excess thermal energy is quickly discharged preventing both sample and mill from overheating, even after long grinding times.
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  • Emax - faster, finer, cooler

    The biggest challenge when developing a high energy ball mill is controlling the temperature. The very high energy produced by ball milling leads to an extreme heat increase inside the grinding jars. RETSCH solved this problem by creating an innovative integrated water-cooling system. Grinding breaks for cooling, which are unavoidable in conventional ball mills even after only 30 minutes grinding at moderate speed, are usually not necessary when using the High Energy Ball Mill Emax.
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  • Ensuring high quality in the additive manufacturing process

    Additive manufacturing, as well as powder injection molding, offer great potential if the raw materials employed are of optimum quality. But the process needs to be continuously monitored, and the finished parts need to be examined meticulously to ascertain the relevant parameters for a high-quality, cost-efficient production process.
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  • Fat Analysis in Food and Feed

    The fat content is one of the most important parameters for the quality control of food and feed. On the one hand, the fat content contributes greatly to the nutritional value of a product; on the other hand, some fats (e.g. milk fat or cocoa fat) are quite expensive components and should therefore be used economically.
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  • Food samples - perfect homogenization with the knife mill GRINDOMIX GM 200

    The diversity of foodstuffs with their often very different properties represents a challenge for food testing laboratories. Before the actual analysis, the sample materials need to be homogenized and reduced to a sufficiently small particle size. The Knife Mill GRINDOMIX GM 200 sets standards in food sample preparation: The cutting effect produced by the steel blades results in the perfect homogenization of samples with high water, oil, sugar or fat content.
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  • Food samples - safe and efficient cryogenic grinding

    Most sample materials can be ground to the required analytical fineness at room temperature. However, there are limits, for example when even a small temperature increase affects the sample in a negative way; or when the material is very elastic and will only be deformed. Moreover, food samples which are fatty or sticky may block the mill. Therefore, cryogenic grinding is the best way to pulverize food samples like cheese, raisins, wine gum or marzipan which simply clump together when ground at room temperature.
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  • From cacao tree to chocolate bar

    The way from the cacao tree to the chocolate bar is a long one. Due to the many processing stages – harvest, fermentation, drying, cleaning, roasting, pre-crushing and finally grinding the cocoa nibs to liquor from which cocoa powder and cocoa butter are pressed – there may be significant differences in the quality.
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  • Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - detection in food and feed samples

    Genetic engineering opens up new possibilities in areas such as medical research, development of alternative fuels or global food supply. It is used to modify the characteristics of plants in order to increase the crop yield, improve defense against predators, pesticides or draught, but also increase concentrations of essential vitamins. However, with regards to food the use of genetic engineering is a fairly controversial issue.
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  • Green Chemistry in the Lab

    Mechanochemistry is a very effective method to carry out syntheses without solvents and by-products. A precondition for the establishment of mechanochemistry in the industrial sector is the availability of suitable laboratory mills. A decisive factor is that – similar to conventional preparative chemistry – ambient parameters such as pressure and temperature can be documented and monitored. The Planetary Ball Mills and Mixer Mills from Retsch fulfill these requirements.
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  • Grinding tools - their effect on metal contamination

    Reliable and accurate analysis results can only be guaranteed by reproducible sample preparation. This consists of transforming a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness. Retsch offers a comprehensive range of the most modern mills and crushers for coarse, fine and ultra-fine size reduction of almost any material. The selection of the correct grinding tool depends on the sample material and the subsequent method of analysis.
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  • Heavy metals in Toys: Sick with Dolls

    A major part of the toys which are available in the American and European market are “made in China”. Just recently, there have been several occasions where potentially hazardous materials had been used in Chinese toys which lead to expensive product recalls. In order to prove traces of heavy metals in toys reliably, it is absolutely necessary to carry out sample preparation with heavy-metal-free tools
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  • Homogenization of tough biological secretions or tissue pieces

    Sometimes the preparation and homogenization of biological samples can be as tough as the material itself. The widely used 2 ml single-use Eppendorf tubes are often not large enough to accommodate the whole sample volume; hence, the sample needs to be divided and reunited after the homogenization process which means an additional time-consuming working step in the lab routine. While it is true that usually larger sized grinding jars, e. g. of stainless steel, are available which accommodate the complete sample volume, these have the drawback of requiring cleaning after use.
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  • MM 500 –fast pulverization & long-term grindings in the nanometer range

    When it comes to long-term grindings of several hours with high energy input to obtain particles sizes < 1 μm, planetary ball mills have been the instruments of choice so far. Despite their benefits for this type of application, they have the drawback of requiring cooling breaks and are not as easy to handle as Mixer Mills. RETSCH has now introduced the new mixer mill MM 500 which features a maximum frequency of 35 Hz and which has therefore as the first Mixer Mill in the market the crushing power to produce particles down to the nanometer range.
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  • Mechanical Alloying with High Energy Ball Mill Emax

    Alloys such as amalgam in dental medicine or stainless steel are universally known and used. The traditional way to produce alloys is to fuse the components at very high temperatures. If only small quantities are required or if the alloys cannot be fused by melting mechanical alloying is an alternative. For this application ball mills are ideally suited. They provide a high energy input due to the impact and friction effects which occur during grinding.
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  • Obtaining grinding results in the desired size range with reduced fines

    For some applications, it is desirable to have as much as possible of the sample within a specific size range with the fines being reduced to a minimum. Cutting mills can do the job for bulky samples with the above-mentioned properties. The SM 300 model is particularly suitable due to the variety of accessories (rotors, bottom sieves, etc.) and flexible speed.
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  • Outdoor clothing: Pure nature or traces of poison?

    Outdoor activities such as hiking, biking or climbing are very popular. As a result, the textile industry offers a huge variety of functional outdoor clothing made from synthetic high-tech materials which are wind- and waterproof as well as breathable. In 2013 Greenpeace published a study proving that hazardous substances such as perfluorinated and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) were used in weatherproof clothing as protection against water or dirt. This article describes the sample preparation process with cutting mills and cryogenic mills of high-tech fibres.
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  • Pesticide analysis of soil - not without sample preparation

    The use of pesticides in agriculture makes it possible to plant extensive monocultures and often leads to substantial yield increases of food and feed crops. Among the undesired side effects are damages to useful plants and insects like bees. Rain also transports the chemicals away from their original area of application to waters and groundwater. The possible accumulation of pesticides in the food chain could be a source of health hazards; therefore, strict quality control of soils is indispensable.
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  • Powerful Cutting Mill

    The SM 300 excels especially in the tough jobs where other cutting mills fail. It has a freely selectable speed range from 700 to 3,000 rpm with high torque. The mill is convenient to operate and easy to clean. Reliable and extremely efficient sample preparation in the laboratory is now guaranteed with the SM 300.
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  • Preparation of Soil, Sewage Sludge and Sediment Samples in a Wastewater Treatment Laboratory

    The preparation of a mixture of organic and inorganic samples holds some difficulties: whereas sand, clay and stones can usually be ground to homogeneous samples with suitable laboratory mills, the high energy input can cause samples with organic components such as fat or starch to cake. Carsten Bunn, a laboratory technician at the waste water treatment laboratory BRW, has to deal with this problem every day. He treats samples which are taken from the sand traps of the wastewater treatment plants and consist of exactly that mixture.
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  • Prosthetic joint infections: New method allows for diagnostics of up to 8 samples with high documentation rate

    One of the major risks of a joint replacement is prosthetic joint infection (PIJ), a bacterial infection at the interface of implant, tissue, and bone. In 2010, A.-L. Roux et al. published an article titled ?Diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection by beadmill processing of a periprosthetic specimen.“ It describes a new diagnosis method of involved microbes, with an impressive documentation rate of more than 83% and, at the same time, a very low contamination rate of 8.7%. The method involves washing the microbes off the tissue samples in a RETSCH Mixer Mill within 210 seconds.
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  • Putting Lignite to the Test

    A typical laboratory sample of coal often consists of 10 kg or more. When dealing with rather inhomogeneous materials like lignite it is not enough to take one of the big lumps and crush it to obtain a few grams which can then be used for analytical processes such as the determination of the calorific value or sulfur content. Using such a sample for analysis will therefore lead to unreliable results which cannot be reproduced.
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  • Quality Control of Cement

    Quality control is an important aspect of cement production. Sample preparation is an essential part of it, because only a representative and reproducible processing of the sample material ensures reliable and meaningful analysis results. RETSCH offers a range of instruments for dividing, crushing, grinding and sizing all materials. To ensure the right choice of instrument for the actual sample material, Retsch offers free-of-charge sample testing in application laboratories all over the world.
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  • Quality control of coal: The influence of sample preparation on elemental analysis results

    The most common types of coal (lignite, bituminous and anthracite) are distinguished by their different chemical and physical properties. Compared to the large amount of coal a typical laboratory sample consists of - a 10 liter bucket or even more - the sample volume required for analysis is fairly low, only approx. 1 g. The standard DIN 51701 defines the sample amount to be tested as this relates to the particle size: The bigger the particles are, the more sample material is required.
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  • Quick and reproducible grinding of feedstuff

    Grain, compound feeds or feed pellets occur in a variety of forms; compound feeds are usually inhomogeneous. Feedstuff is analyzed, for example, to determine the nutritional value, to detect hazardous substances or genetically modified ingredients. To ensure meaningful and reliable analysis results, representative and homogeneous samples are required. Therefore, sample preparation involves homogenization and size reduction of the material to a defined particle size. RETSCH laboratory mills are perfectly suited for this process.
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  • Reproducible and reliable sample preparation

    In the book "Ideas and Applications Toward Sample Preparation for Food and Beverage Analysis," (ISBN 978-953-51-3686-6), edited by Mark T. Stauffer, RETSCH has published a chapter on reliable sample preparation of food samples. This chapter describes the process of turning a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness by choosing the most suitable mill. Important aspects of size reduction and homogenization are explained, a variety of application examples is given, and specific applications such as cryogenic grinding are discussed in detail.
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  • Salt: Grinding large sample volumes of the white gold

    Rock salt and sea salt not only consist of sodium chloride but may also contain other minerals and silicates, depending on the mining area and method. To analyze the composition of salt, the sample needs to be sufficiently homogenized, considering that larger lumps of rock salt are usually very inhomogeneous. The Rotor Beater Mill SR 300 easily pulverizes charges of several kilogram and is therefore ideally suited for this application.
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  • Sample Preparation Prior to Fat Analysis in Food & Feed with New NMR Technology

    Thorough sample preparation with laboratory mills is a premise for reliable and reproducible results. Retsch offers mills and crushers for reproducible and fast homogenization of food and feed samples. Combined with the SMART 6 and the Oracle fat analyzers from CEM, fat analysis can be done in less than 10 min.
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  • Sample Preparation and Analysis of Arsenic in Rice

    Considerable care must be taken when analyzing a sample like rice in order to achieve an accurate result. The major source of error when analyzing a bulk material comes not from the analytical measurement itself, but from the sample handling, i.e., sampling, sample division, grinding, digestion, etc.
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  • Sample Preparation for X-Ray Diffraction Analysis

    The XRD-Mill McCrone preserves the crystal lattice structure of the sample - With resources becoming increasingly scarce, innovative technologies allowing for sustainable use of raw materials are much sought after. The mineralogist Dr. Robert Moeckel is researching mineral and metallic raw materials at the Helmholtz-Institute for Technology of Resources in Freiburg, Germany. Dr. Moeckel′s research projects involve pulverization and homogenization of mineral samples prior to x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.
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  • Sample Preparation in the context of the new RoHS Directive

    In July 2019, an amended RoHS Directive with new prohibitions on the use of substances came into force. All EU countries must adopt the directive through national legislation which will not only affect EU members but also countries which export their products to Europe. The manufacturers of electric appliances as well as recyclers and disposers of electronic scrap need to carry out analytical examinations to prove that the RoHS directive is being observed.
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  • Sample Preparation of Electronic Scrap in the Context of RoHS and WEEE

    Since August 2004 new EU directives for the disposal of used electrical and electronic appliances as well as the restricted use of certain hazardous substances in these devices have become effective.
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  • Sample Preparation of PET Preforms

    Plastic bottles from PET have become a common part of everyday life. In the last few years, two disadvantages of PET have been widely discussed in the press: Contamination with antimony and, when PET gets warm, acetaldehyde is produced which may diffuse into the beverage. The acetaldehyde content is analyzed by gas chromatography, The typical method for the detection of antimony is atomic emission spectroscopy. But first of all, a representative sample needs to be obtained. For this, several preforms are pre-ground in a cutting mill SM 300.
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  • Sample Preparation with the High Energy Ball Mill Emax- Time Advantage in Pharmaceutical Research

    The development of drugs with poorly soluble to insoluble active ingredients is a big challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. The bioavailability of orally taken active ingredients, which means to what extent and in which period of time the substance is ingested by the body and is available at the place of action, strongly depends on the percentage dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract. One way to improve the solubility and thus the bioavailability of active ingredients is the pulverization of these substances.
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  • Sample preparation of PET preforms for subsequent analytics

    In the beverage industry plastic bottles – or rather their performs - are analyzed for their acetaldehyde content to prevent any health risk for consumers. To ensure correct results, the bottles first have to be crushed and homogenized by laboratory mills. To preserve the acetaldehyde, part of the sample preparation is carried out under cryogenic conditions.
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  • Sample preparation of feeds and forage for NIR analysis

    The feed quality has a decisive influence on the productivity of livestock farming. This includes reliable analyses of feedstuff and ingredients from receipt of goods to final inspection as the best way to ensure a balanced feeding of the animals while keeping cost and profit orientation in focus. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) is the most important analytical method for the determination of protein content, moisture, fat and ash in feeds and forage.
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  • Size reduction of elastic plastics with volatile components

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as PAH, are used as plasticizers in many caoutchouc products such as, for example, rubber grips of tools. Some PAH have a proven carcinogenic effect on humans; that is why there are critical limits for the maximum concentration in consumer products. The best way how to prepare such materials for further analysis is demonstrated exemplarily with a rain cover of a pushchair
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  • Solutions for Sample Preparation in the Aerospace Industry

    The materials used in the aerospace industry have changed over the last 40 years. While aluminum was most common in the past, it has been increasingly replaced by lightweight composite materials, aerogels, new alloys and fiber-reinforced polymer materials. Laboratory crushers and mills are essential tools to homogenize all these materials for both, quality control purposes and research procedures. With regards to developing new materials such as superalloys, mechanical alloying in ball mills has become an import method.
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  • Toxic substances in our daily life

    Plastic is an inherent part of our everyday lives. Though the utility of the material is undoubted, consumers are increasingly unsettled by recurring news about hazardous substances detected in plastics. Substances such as plasticizers are absorbed via the skin and can influence the hormonal balance. Equally hazardous are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The family of PAH comprises more than 100 compounds most of which have been found to be carcinogenic.
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  • Tracing poison - Sample preparation for analysis of toxic elements

    Reports on findings of hazardous substances in food products are nothing unusual these days: pesticides in fruit, arsenic in rice or toxic plant parts in tea, to name but a few. Therefore, permanent quality control is an indispensable tool of consumer protection. Apart from the actual food testing, sample preparation by homogenization is essential to obtain reliable results.
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  • Tracking Down Fake Cashmere

    Cashmere wool is the best known precious wool. It is won from the cashmere goat which originates from the high mountain region of the same name. Due to its properties such as softness and warmth, cashmere wool gains more and more popularity in the manufacture of clothing. Genuine cashmere is won solely from the goat’s downy hair and must possess a certain hair structure with an exactly defined length and thickness.
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  • What Hair Reveals

    The detection of illegal drugs and pharmaceuticals plays a role in various fields, for example in forensic science, road traffic accidents, in competitive sports or at the workplace. Hair has the great advantage of storing the substances for a long period, which means that detection is still possible several months after consumption of the drug. In addition to the detection of drugs, hair samples are also used for DNA analysis as well as for the analysis of heavy metals and minerals.
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  • White Paper: Cryogenic Preparation of Sample Materials

    A solid sample material should always be sufficiently prepared by size reduction and homogenization before it is subjected to chemical or physical analysis. Care should be taken that the analysis sample fully represents the original material and that the sample preparation process is carried out reproducibly. Most sample materials can be reduced to the required analytical fineness at room temperature by choosing a mill with a suitable size reduction principle (impact, pressure, friction, shearing, cutting).
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  • White Paper: How to minimize standard deviations by correct sample preparation

    Modern analytical methods increase precision and push detection limits to make even the smallest traces of sample components detectable. Despite this development sample preparation, which is carried out prior to the actual analysis, is frequently neglected. Errors caused by lacking accuracy in sample preparation have a much bigger impact than errors made during analysis.
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  • White Paper: Important Aspects of Sample Preparation of Biological Materials

    Biological samples exist in all shapes and sizes: hard bones, tough and fibrous plants, tough and viscous sputum, soft muscles, tumor or liver tissue. Not to mention the millions of cells such as yeast, bacteria or algae, which have to be disrupted for applications such as DNA or RNA isolation or protein extraction. Retsch offers a range of mills and grinders for easy and reproducible pulverization of solid sample materials some of which are also suitable for cell disruption and homogenization of biological sample materials.
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  • White Paper: Rapid and efficient disruption of yeast cells with the Mixer Mill MM 400

    Cell disruption of bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi or microalgae is a standard procedure in basic biological research, applied biotechnology or medical research to get access to nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) or cell proteins. For the isolation of DNA or RNA usually less than 1 ml of cell material is needed. For the extraction of proteins, however, larger amounts of cell suspension are required. A very efficient method of cell disruption is the co called “bead beating” where cells in suspension are mechanically disrupted by glass beads in single-use reaction vials.
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  • White Paper: Representative Analysis Results Require Adequate Sample Preparation

    A faultless and comparable analysis is closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful analysis results. Rotating dividers and rotary tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis. Correct sample handling consequently minimizes the probability of a production stop due to incorrect analysis results. Thus correct sample handling is the key to effective quality control.

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  • White Paper: Reproducible Sample Preparation for Reliable Food Analysis

    Food occurs in a great variety of consistencies and is often inhomogeneous. Food testing labs require representative samples to produce meaningful and reproducible analysis results. Therefore, food samples must be homogenized and pulverized to the required analytical fineness, ideally with as little time and effort as possible.
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  • White Paper: Ultrafine Grinding with Laboratory Ball Mills

    How are nano particles produced? The “Bottom-Up” method synthesizes particles from atoms or molecules. The “Top-Down” method involves reducing the size of larger particles to nanoscale, for example with laboratory mills. Nano particles are produced by colloidal grinding which involves dispersion of the particles in liquid to neutralize the surface charges. Factors such as energy input and size reduction principle make ball mills the best choice for the production of nanoparticles.
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Просеивающие машины(21)

  • D’D?D±?€D°??D?D?D?D?D°?? D′D???DoD?D2D°?? D?DμD???D?D???D° RS 200 - D?D?D°D?D???D???Dμ??DoD°?? ??D?D?DoD??????? D·D° ??DμDo??D?D′?

  • Контроль качества цемента - от предварительного и аналитического измельчения образцов до элементного анализа

    Для производства высококачественного цемента необходимо знать минералогический и химический состав используемых сырьевых материалов, а также промежуточной и готовой продукции. На каждой стадии производства выполняется отбор проб для соответствующей обработки и анализа, что позволяет вести непрерывный контроль качества.
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  • Переработка стекла - ценный ресурс

  • Превращая лом в сырьё

  • Работа с большими объёмами пробы с AS 450 control

  • Ситовой анализ и измельчение металлических порошков

    Возможность повторного использования сырьевых материалов играет важную роль в металлургии. Компания RETSCH предлагает широкий спектр оборудования, предназначенного для рассева порошков и измельчения металлических компонентов, что позволяет в дальнейшем повторно использовать переработанный материал в производственном процессе.
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  • Air Jet Sieving of Bulk Materials

    Particle size analysis and particle size distribution are important criteria for the quality control of bulk materials. In a running production process, the results of a quality check must be available quickly to allow for immediate adjustment of the production parameters. Depending on the expected particle size and sample volume, different sieving methods and sieving machines are suitable for analysis. The method used for particle size analysis is primarily determined by the fineness of the material to be sieved. For dry sieving of samples with particle sizes below 40 microns, air jet sieving is the method of choice.
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  • Biomass - sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials

    Sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials with laboratory mills. Thanks to the increasing usage of biomass as a source of energy, the analysis of these materials in the context of R&D and quality control gains importance, too. Due to the complex properties of plant materials, adequate sample preparation can be rather a challenge.
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  • Down to the bone

    The material used in implants varies from autogeneic through allogeneic bones to replacement materials such as hydroxylapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Bovine bones and corals are used in conjunction with synthetically produced foamed materials to form a basis for the regeneration of bone substance. Various RETSCH mills are suitable for the preliminary and fine grinding of human bones as well as bioceramic materials.
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  • Ensuring high quality in the additive manufacturing process

    Additive manufacturing, as well as powder injection molding, offer great potential if the raw materials employed are of optimum quality. But the process needs to be continuously monitored, and the finished parts need to be examined meticulously to ascertain the relevant parameters for a high-quality, cost-efficient production process.
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  • Fine Tuning Sieve Analysis for Accurate Particle Size Measurement

    All to often, this useful method is overlooked. But if followed, these principles deliver accurate and reliable results at an affordable price.
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  • Measuring Dust - Incoming Inspection with Sieve Analysis

    Graduate student Jennifer Franz has developed a new inspection procedure during her work at the German food producer Lebensgarten GmbH. With the help of sieve analysis the company can now reliably ascertain the fines and dust fractions of incoming cereal flakes; these have a negative influence on the mixing and packaging process of muesli.
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  • Particle size - a quality feature

    The determination of the particle size distribution of a product has always been of great significance in food production. Taste, color, solubility or extraction behavior are only a few examples of product properties which are directly influenced by particle size. In the testing laboratory of the St. Petersburg branch of LLC Wrigley, RETSCH sieve shakers AS 200 jet and AS 200 control are utilized for particle size analysis of fine powders which are used for chewing gum production.
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  • Put the squeeze on

    Sieving is cost effective for particle sizes greater than 75 μ, although the technique can be used for some materials of smaller size if the method can be validated. Assuming the relevant standards and clean, wellmaintained equipment that conforms to the standards are used, sieving can provide an accurate and reproducible measure of particle size distribution within a sample.
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  • Quality Control of Cement

    Quality control is an important aspect of cement production. Sample preparation is an essential part of it, because only a representative and reproducible processing of the sample material ensures reliable and meaningful analysis results. RETSCH offers a range of instruments for dividing, crushing, grinding and sizing all materials. To ensure the right choice of instrument for the actual sample material, Retsch offers free-of-charge sample testing in application laboratories all over the world.
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  • Reproducible Sieving in the Shortest Possible Time

    Despite the rapid development of modern optical particle measuring techniques, classical sieving analysis is still at the forefront for the practical quality assurance of bulk goods.
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  • Separation of large sample volumes with the AS 450 control

    Particle analysis of large quantities of bulk goods is usually done by vibratory sieving. In most vibratory sieve shakers in the market the sieve stack is mounted on springs which oscillate vertically. However, to evenly distribute the material over the entire sieve surface, the so called 3D vibratory sieving as it is used in the AS 450 control is the most suitable method.
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  • Small particles help to preserve the Cologne Cathedral

    The Cologne Cathedral is a venerable old building whose historic substance is preserved by continuing restoration works. Mortar is one of the construction materials that the conservators use for preservation and restoration of the ancient stones. To obtain mortar with optimum quality, the conservators at the cathedral workshop in Cologne use a RETSCH sieve shaker to determine the particle size distribution of the material.
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  • Solutions for Sample Preparation in the Aerospace Industry

    The materials used in the aerospace industry have changed over the last 40 years. While aluminum was most common in the past, it has been increasingly replaced by lightweight composite materials, aerogels, new alloys and fiber-reinforced polymer materials. Laboratory crushers and mills are essential tools to homogenize all these materials for both, quality control purposes and research procedures. With regards to developing new materials such as superalloys, mechanical alloying in ball mills has become an import method.
    [больше...]
  • The Basic Principles of Sieve Analysis

    Many natural and manufactured materials occur in a disperse form, which means that they consist of differently shaped and sized particles. The particle size distribution, i.e. the number of particles of different sizes, is responsible for important physical and chemical properties.
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  • White Paper. Different sieving methods for a variety of applications

    The determination and knowledge of the particle size distribution is an essential part of the quality control process for industrial products. Easy handling, low investment cost and high accuracy make sieve analysis one of the most frequently used procedures for measuring the particle size. This white paper gives an overview of the different sieving techniques and describes the necessary steps to ensure reliable results.
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Вспомогательное оборудование(12)

  • Превосходная скорость, конечная тонкость и воспроизводимость

    The overall procedure of X-ray fluorescence analysis may be divided into three different stages: sampling, sample preparation and the actual spectrometric analysis itself. Of these three, it is usually the mechanical sample preparation that takes up most of the time and will therefore be discussed in this application report.
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  • Сталелитейная промышленность: Гомогенизация шлака для оптимизации процесса

    Множество проб сырья и шлака требуется проанализировать на минералогический и химический состав для оптимизации производства стали на тех шагах где эти материалы вовлекаются в цепочку производства. На каждом этапе производства производится отбор пробы, её обработка и анализ для обеспечения полного контроля качества "без пробелов".
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  • Comparative investigations on spinning rifflers

    The influence of the degree of mixing of the material and the influence of the operating data of the apparatus were investigated in two spinning rifflers.
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  • Detection of Mycotoxins in Nuts

    Just like micro-organisms which generate antibiotics, molds which generate mycotoxins have spread all over the world. Aflatoxins are the most toxic form of mycotoxins. Some types of food show an increased risk of aflatoxin release due to fungal infestation: dried fruit, spices, nuts (peanuts, hazelnuts, pistachios) and grain (wheat, corn).
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  • Fine Tuning Sieve Analysis for Accurate Particle Size Measurement

    All to often, this useful method is overlooked. But if followed, these principles deliver accurate and reliable results at an affordable price.
    [больше...]
  • No Representative Analysis Results without Correct Sample Division

    Faultless and reproducible analysis results are closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful results. Rotating dividers and rotating tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis.
    [больше...]
  • Put the squeeze on

    Sieving is cost effective for particle sizes greater than 75 μ, although the technique can be used for some materials of smaller size if the method can be validated. Assuming the relevant standards and clean, wellmaintained equipment that conforms to the standards are used, sieving can provide an accurate and reproducible measure of particle size distribution within a sample.
    [больше...]
  • Quality control of coal: The influence of sample preparation on elemental analysis results

    The most common types of coal (lignite, bituminous and anthracite) are distinguished by their different chemical and physical properties. Compared to the large amount of coal a typical laboratory sample consists of - a 10 liter bucket or even more - the sample volume required for analysis is fairly low, only approx. 1 g. The standard DIN 51701 defines the sample amount to be tested as this relates to the particle size: The bigger the particles are, the more sample material is required.
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  • Representative results require adequate sample preparation

    The following situation is typical for many production plants: After a routine quality check, the production process is stopped or an already produced batch is suspended, because the analysis results were not within the relevant critical values. But does the tested product really deviate from the specifications? It is often not the product itself which causes irregular analysis results but a lack of understanding of the steps which come before the analysis.
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  • Sample Division of Large Volumes

    Representative sampling of large sample volumes is an integral part of the physical and chemical analysis of bulk goods and has a decisive influence on the quality of the results. Extraction of a sample from the bulk is not always carried out in a way to ensure representativeness. This is a widespread flaw in the quality control process with a negative impact on the subsequent analysis results. RETSCH provides some convenient solutions which help to improve working conditions and thereby the quality of the sampling process.
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  • Sample Preparation and Analysis of Arsenic in Rice

    Considerable care must be taken when analyzing a sample like rice in order to achieve an accurate result. The major source of error when analyzing a bulk material comes not from the analytical measurement itself, but from the sample handling, i.e., sampling, sample division, grinding, digestion, etc.
    [больше...]
  • Sample Preparation in the context of the new RoHS Directive

    In July 2019, an amended RoHS Directive with new prohibitions on the use of substances came into force. All EU countries must adopt the directive through national legislation which will not only affect EU members but also countries which export their products to Europe. The manufacturers of electric appliances as well as recyclers and disposers of electronic scrap need to carry out analytical examinations to prove that the RoHS directive is being observed.
    [больше...]

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